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    您正在使用IE低版瀏覽器,為了您的雷鋒網賬號安全和更好的產品體驗,強烈建議使用更快更安全的瀏覽器
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    量子計算機的性能何時能超越傳統計算機?

    本文作者:包永剛 2019-06-12 19:04
    導語:從實踐者的角度看,量子計算的部署至少還需要幾年時間。

    雷鋒網按:傳統計算機性能的提升面臨挑戰,光子計算、量子計算、生物計算等新的技術都引發了業界關注。量子計算被認為能夠解決傳統計算不能解決的問題,但目前量子計算面臨諸多挑戰,性能還未超越傳統計算機。從實踐者的角度看,量子計算的部署至少還需要幾年時間。

    量子計算機的性能何時能超越傳統計算機?

    【 圖片來源:scientificamerican 所有者:Richard Kail Getty Images 】

    到目前為止,提到量子計算大部分人都會認為這是一種革命性的技術,它利用量子力學的奇特特性更快解決問題,甚至解決普通計算機無法解決的問題。這些問題從數學到零售業,從物理到金融。如果率先掌握量子技術,將有利于提升國家的競爭力。

    量子計算的前景在20世紀80年代首次得到認可,但至今仍未實現。量子計算機難以設計、建造和編程。其中,相干性、量子損失是巨大的挑戰,這對量子計算機的運營至關重要,這可能會導致重要程序在運營之前系統就崩潰。

    雷鋒網了解到,目前全球有許多巨頭都參與了量子計算的競爭,國外的IBM、谷歌、英特爾,國內阿里、華為都取得了不同程度的進展,學術界以及國家實驗室也有量子計算的相關研究。

    雖然IBM,谷歌和IonQ正在測試50 、72甚至-160量子位的設備,但每增加一個量子位就會使機器復雜程度增加兩倍,在這些量子位有限的系統中,研究人員只能在量子衰減之前執行少量量子操作或“門”。太多的量子比特會使系統崩潰。

    量子計算機的性能何時能超越傳統計算機?

    不僅如此,建造和操作量子計算機的每一步都很難,與傳統的芯片不同,要么用激光捕獲單個原子,要么用激光器來制造。這通常需要將處理器保持在幾乎絕對零度,控制這個系統被證明非常困難,電磁脈沖的設計必須完美設計,因為來自外部環境的一小部分能量可能導致量子比特衰減。

    由振動、溫度波動、電磁波還有其他外部環境的相互作用引起的這種相干性(稱為退相干)的損失最終破壞了量子的奇異特性。鑒于目前普遍存在的退相干和其他問題,當代量子計算機不太可能返回完全正確的答案,即使運行的時間比較短。 

    雖然技術和架構的競爭正在解決這些問題,但現有的硬件平臺不能保持一致性并提供大規模量子計算所需的強大糾錯能力。或許,幾年之后可能會取得突破。

    與此同時,這個價值數十億美元的問題是,在完成普及的計算方式之前,我們如何從一臺不可靠的計算機中獲得有用的結果?

    答案是,工業界、學術界和國家實驗室的研究人員都在尋求減少錯誤的方法。一種方法是基于各種噪聲大小的計算結果來猜測無差錯計算的結果。另一種完全不同的方法是,混合量子經典算法,只在量子計算機上運行程序中最關鍵的部分,大部分程序運行在更穩定的經典計算機上。事實證明,這些策略和其他策略對于應對當今量子計算機的干擾問題非常有用。

    雖然經典計算機也受到各種錯誤的影響,但這些錯誤可以通過適量的額外存儲和邏輯來糾正。量子誤差校正方案確實存在,但會消耗大量的量子位(量子位),以至于只有相對較少的量子位能用于實際計算。這將使量子計算機可以計算的任務大大減少。

    為了更清楚地了解量子比特的消耗,今天最先進的基于量子門的量子計算機,它使用類似于計算機、智能手機或平板電腦中的數字電路的邏輯門,目前,最先進的量子計算機只有50個量子位。而目前常見的計算設備中通常有數十億個邏輯門。

    麻煩的是,量子力學挑戰了我們的直覺。因此,我們很難找出執行任務的最佳算法。為了克服這些問題,Los Alamos 國家實驗室的團隊正在開發一種方法來優化在相干的量子計算機上執行有用任務的算法。

    算法可以理解為是告訴計算機執行操作的列表,類似于烹飪的配方。與傳統算法相比,量子計算的算法最好盡可能短,并且研究團隊發現,最適合于給定硬件設備的特定缺陷和噪聲方案。這使得該算法能夠在退相干之前在約束時間框架內執行更多的處理步驟,從而將正確結果盡可能提高。這種方法的主要思想是減少門的數量,試圖在退相干之前完成執行,讓其他錯誤來源沒有成功的可能性。

    當然,量子計算正一步步走向商用。摩根大通 (JPMorgan Chase&Co)看到了將量子計算作為一種具備潛力顯著加速金融計算的方法,自2017年底以來,該銀行一直與IBM的研究人員合作,試驗量子計算。

    雖然距離部署還需要幾年時間,但摩根大通已經看到了一些小的成果,包括在理論上證明量子計算可以從根本上加速某些金融模型的成功。

    摩根大通公司和投資銀行定量研究總經理Ning Shen表示,這項技術需要幾年時間才能成熟,部分原因是所需的硬件非常復雜,適應和創建新的量子算法需要時間。

    至于公司何時可以開始從量子計算中看到可衡量的商業價值,時間從三年到十年不等,但這并不能阻止像摩根大通這樣的公司進行早期試驗。值得注意的是,據Gartner的預測,到2023年,包括企業或政府在內的組織預計將有20%為量子計算項目準備預算,而2018年不到1% 。雷鋒網(公眾號:雷鋒網)

    雷鋒網參考 scientificamericangizmodowsj

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    IBM :實現機器學習的「量子優勢」還任重道遠,但在特征映射方面的努力將見成效

    類比電腦的興起,任何人都能使用量子計算機的時代正在到來

    巨頭們的固態量子計算處理器最終是死路一條?

    雷鋒網原創文章,未經授權禁止轉載。詳情見轉載須知

    量子計算機的性能何時能超越傳統計算機?
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